APA 101

A guide, with examples, of APA-specific information you should know and use.

For the correct way to format citations, see the Table 6.1. Basic Citation Styles on page 177 of the APA manual. Remember, if you cite in the text, there must be a matching entry in the References.

This document contains examples of the most common type of reference entries: Common Reference Entries

For APA rules on capitalization, see sections 4.15 (page 101) and 4.15 (page 102) of the APA manual.

For APA guidelines on quotations, see section 6.03 (pages 170-171) of the APA manual.

Whole numbers
  • Whole numbers less than 10 should be spelled out: one, three, nine, etc.
  • Whole numbers greater than nine should be presented in numerals: 10, 35, 270, 3,495
  • A sentence with whole numbers less than 10 and greater than nine should use numerals throughout: Our sample included 25 female participants and 8 male participants.

  • First person
    According to the APA manual (section 3.09, p. 69) “To avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronoun rather than the third person . . .”

    Gendered pronouns
    The so-called “singular they” is becoming more widely accepted when writing about a generic individual. See this source for a complete discussion:The use of singular “they” in APA style .